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19th European Organic Chemistry Congress, will be organized around the theme “"Contemporary methodologies and revolutionary trends in organic chemistry"”
Euro Organic Chemistry 2023 is comprised of keynote and speakers sessions on latest cutting edge research designed to offer comprehensive global discussions that address current issues in Euro Organic Chemistry 2023
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Organic chemistry is a branch of chemistry that studies the structure, properties, and reactions of organic compounds, which contain carbon-carbon covalent bonds. Study of structure determines their structural formula. Study of properties includes physical and chemical properties, and evaluation of chemical reactivity to understand their behavior. The study of organic reactions includes the chemical synthesis of natural products, drugs, and polymers, and study of individual organic molecules in the laboratory and via theoretical (in silico) study.
The most common and important industrial inorganic chemicals include ammonia, ammonia salts, carbon black, chlorine, sulfuric acid, and hydrochloric acid. There are also many specialties, small volume products for use in electronics, aerospace, energy and other demanding applications that often command high valuations.
A polymer is any of a class of natural or synthetic substances composed of very large molecules, called macromolecules, which are multiples of simpler chemical units called monomers. Polymers make up many of the materials in living organisms and are the basis of many minerals and man-made materials.
Medicinal Chemistry and pharmaceutical science are disciplines at the conjunction of science, mainly synthetic organic science, and pharmacology and different other organic claims to fame, where they are included with plan, compound amalgamation and advancement for market of pharmaceutical specialists, or bio-dynamic atoms (drugs).
Specially, restorative science in its most basic work on—concentrating on organic compounds —envelops manufactured organic chemistry and parts of common items and computational science in close blend with biological chemistry, enzymology and auxiliary science, together going for the disclosure and improvement of new helpful operators. Basically, it includes concoction parts of ID, and after that orderly, exhaustive engineered adjustment of new substance elements to make them reasonable for helpful utilize.
Any forensic science investigation involving biochemistry can be referred to as forensic biochemistry.
First, forensic science may be defined as the investigation of crime using scientific techniques and methods.
Forensic investigations often involve serological and biochemical techniques. The biomedical techniques used to conduct forensic investigations constitute the field of forensic biochemistry, which has various applications. For instance, forensic biochemists may be asked to trace the origin of a particular substance, determine paternity or the relationships that specific people or animals share, or even track the spread of diseases.
Forensic biochemistry has proven to be invaluable in conducting forensic science investigations, particularly the DNA fingerprinting technique. However, it should be noted that forensic biochemistry must be used with caution, as its findings can have serious implications.
Environmental chemistry is associated with the impact of polluting chemicals on the natural resources, green or sustainable chemistry focuses on the impact of environmental factors or attributes with respect to chemistry, reduction in the consumption of conventional resources and technological solutions for preventing pollution.
Both the concepts are different from each other
Green chemistry, also termed as sustainable chemistry is that branch of chemical sciences that emphasizes on design of chemical processes and products that minimize generation of hazardous chemical substances.
Environmental chemistry is the branch of science that involves the study of biochemical processes that occur in nature. It involves the understanding of how the uncontaminated environment works, and which naturally occurring chemicals are present, in what concentrations and with what effects.
Chemical Engineering is a branch of engineering that applies physical sciences (physics and chemistry), life sciences (microbiology and biochemistry), together with applied mathematics and economics to produce, transform, transport, and properly use chemicals, materials, and energy.
Important aspect of drug delivery is site at which drug must be released. Drugs delivery agents are designed according to chemical nature of the site at which it has to be delivered. Examples include drugs designed for stomach. These drugs are encapsulated in such a polymer which is sensitive to pH. The protective polymer which encapsulated the drug dissolves at a rate which is dependent on pH (acidity) of its environment (stomach). The drug delivery can be tuned by controlling the rate of dissolution of polymer. The polymer dissolution process is nothing more than hydrolysis of the polymer. Being a chemical reaction, its rate of reaction (rate of dissolution) can be controlled. A whole branch of chemistry is dedicated to this study, Chemical kinetics. Thus, knowledge of chemical engineering is essential in such designs.
Mass Spectroscopy is an analytical technique that Encourages and exchange ideas among experts within the area as spectroscopy which ionizes chemical species and sorts the ions supported their mass-to-charge ratio. In simpler terms, Mass spectrometry is employed in many various fields where spectrum measures the masses within a sample and is applied to pure samples also as complex mixtures. Filtration Chemistry may be a branch of Chemistry that deals with the Filtration Techniques which are utilized in various fields to Separate/extract the ingredients which very useful and to separate the unknown ingredients using instruments like UV, HPLC, GC. IR. etc.
An understanding of attraction dipoles and also the numerous types of non-covalent unit forces permits America to elucidate on a molecular level and many evident physical properties of organic compounds. Throughout this section, we square measure progressing to specialize in solubility, melting point and boiling purpose. Boiling happens once the chance of heat turning into internal energy and work to carry out vaporization becomes up to the chance of the reverse pathway. The boiling thermal property is higher the stronger the unit attractions as a results of the stronger the static force of attraction, the ton of energy is required to separate the particles and the larger the static P.E. increase associated with vaporization. Ion-Ion forces or attractions area unite the strongest. They involve the attraction between species.
Radiochemistry is the chemistry of radioactive materials, where radioactive isotopes of elements are used to study the properties and chemical reactions of non-radioactive isotopes (often within radiochemistry the absence of radioactivity leads to a substance being described as being inactive as the isotopes are stable). Much of radiochemistry deals with the use of radioactivity to study ordinary chemical reactions. This is very different from radiation chemistry where the radiation levels are kept too low to influence the chemistry.
Radiochemistry includes the study of both natural and man-made radioisotopes.
The instrumental methods of chemical analysis are divided into categories according to the property of the analyte that is to be measured. Many of the methods can be used for both qualitative and quantitative analysis. The major categories of instrumental methods are the spectral, electroanalytical, and separatory.
Catalyzed reactions have a lower energy (rate-limiting free energy of activation) than the corresponding un-catalyzed reaction leading to a better reaction rate at a similar temperature and for similar chemical concentrations. However, the detailed mechanics of chemical change is complicated. Catalysts could affect the reaction atmosphere favorably or bind to the reagents to polarize bonds, e.g. acid catalysts for reactions of carbonyl compounds or type specific intermediates that don't seem to be created naturally like osmate esters in osmium tetroxide-catalyzed hydroxylation of alkenes or cause dissociation of reagents to reactive.
Inorganic chemistry mainly deals with the synthesis and behaviour of inorganic and organometallic compounds. This field covers all chemical compounds except the myriad organic compounds. The difference between the two disciplines is far from absolute, as there is much intersection in the sub discipline of organometallic chemistry. It has applications in every aspect of the chemical industry, including catalysis, materials science, pigments, surfactants, coatings, medications, fuels, and agriculture.
Structure determination is also a procedure by that the three-dimensional atomic coordinates of a molecule or biomolecule area unit resolved exploitation associate analytical technique. Many techniques square measure utilized in structure determination, most generally X-ray physics, nucleon magnetic resonance spectrometry, microscopy and molecular modelling. Nuclear resonance is associate degree analytical chemistry technique utilized in control and analysis for determinative the content and purity of a sample in addition as its molecular structure. NMR could also be used to verify molecular conformation in answer in addition as checking out physical properties at the molecular level like conformational activity, half changes, solubility and diffusion.
The study of stereochemistry focuses on stereoisomers and spans the complete spectrum of organic, inorganic, biological, physical and particularly supra molecular chemistry. Stereochemistry includes strategies for determinant and describing these relationships; the result on the physical or biological properties these relationships impart upon the molecules in question, and also the manner during which these relationships influence the reactivity of the molecules.
Agricultural chemistry is the study of each chemistry and organic chemistry that are vital in agricultural production, the process of raw products into foods and beverages and in environmental monitoring and rectification. These studies emphasize the relationships between plants, animals and microorganism and their environment. The science of chemical compositions and changes concerned within the production, protection and use of crops are placental. As a basic science it embraces additionally to test-tube chemistry; all the life processes through that human acquire food and fibre for themselves and feed for their animals. As an engineering or technology, it's directed towards management of these processes to extend yields, improve quality and cut back prices.
Plant pests and diseases can wipe out farmers’ hard work and cause significant losses to yield and incomes, posing a major threat to food security. Globalization, trade, and climate change, as well as reduced resilience in production systems due to decades of agricultural intensification and biodiversity loss, have all played a part in the dramatic increase and spread of trans boundary plant pests and diseases. Pests and diseases can easily spread to several countries and reach epidemic proportions. Outbreaks and upsurges can cause huge losses to crop and pastures, threatening the livelihoods of farmers and the food and nutrition security of millions at a time.
Crop rotation means changing the type of crop grown on a particular piece of land from year to year. As used in this manual, the term includes both cyclical rotations, in which the same sequence of crops is repeated indefinitely on a field, and non-cyclical rotations, in which the sequence of crops varies irregularly to meet the evolving business and management goals of the farmer. Good crop rotation requires long-term strategic planning. Crop rotation is the practice of growing a series of dissimilar or different types of crops in the same area in sequenced seasons. It is done so that the soil of farms is not used for only one set of nutrients. It helps in reducing soil erosion and increases soil fertility and crop yield.
The goal of sustainable agriculture is to meet society’s food and Agri, food, Aqua needs in the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Practitioners of sustainable agriculture seek to integrate three main objectives into their work: a healthy environment, economic profitability, and social and economic equity. Every person involved in the food system-growers, food processors, distributors, retailers, consumers, and waste managers-can play a role in ensuring a sustainable agricultural system. Soil health plays an essential role in raising healthy, productive crops and livestock. The many benefits of cover crops are increasingly appreciated among farmers. They play an important role in erosion control, weed control, soil conservation, and soil health. With careful selection and management, they fit into any crop rotation or cropping system, such as no-till farming, and are integral to organic farming. Increase profitable farm income Promote environmental stewardship Enhance quality of life for farm families and communities Increase production for human food and fiber needs.
Bio-fertilizer technology has shown promise for integrated nutrient management through biological Nitrogen fixation (BNF). Bio-fertilizers may also be used to improve Phosphate availability to crops. The efficacy of inoculants can vary with inoculant type, crop species, formulation, soil nutrient level, soil pH/type, existence of relevant microbes in the soil, and weather conditions. Bio-fertilizers are living organisms that enrich the nutrient quality of the soil. It refers to the use of microbes instead of chemicals to enhance the nutrition of the soil, it is also less harmful and does not cause pollution. Main roles of bio-fertilizers: Make nutrients available. Make the root rhizosphere livelier. Growth-promoting substances are produced. More root proliferation and better germination Improve the quality and quantity of produce. Improve the fertilizer use efficiency. Higher biotic and abiotic stress tolerance Improve soil health. Residual effect makes the system more sustainable “Biofertilizers are the product containing carrier based (solid or liquid) living microorganisms which are agriculturally useful in terms of nitrogen fixation, phosphorus solubilization or nutrient mobilization, to increase the productivity of the soil and/or crop. Biofertilizer applications: Seed treatment | Seedling root dip treatment | Soil treatment.
Organic farming is a specific type of agricultural production which is used to produce fiber and food which restricts farmers from using harmful synthetic pesticides. Organic Agriculture is an ecological production management that encourage and enhances biological cycles, biodiversity, and soil biological activity. All produce meat, grains, dairy, eggs, and fibers must be derived in an organic way. An organic farmer depends on increasing biological diversity in the field to disrupt habitat for pest organisms and maintain soil fertility. By allowing farm animals access to the outdoors and feeding them 100% organic food, a healthier farm system is created for human, animals, and the environment. Certified organic refers to agricultural products that have been grown and developed according to uniform standards and must be verified by organizations that have been accredited by the USDA.
Plant Genomics is the part of molecular biology working with the structure, function, evolution, and mapping of genomes in plants. Genomics is the study of genes, their expression and their activities, the role played in biology. Genomics is a branch of genetics that is concerned with the sequencing and analysis of organism's genome. Genomics aids us in maintaining the large number of databases that assists us to study genetic variation.
Soil management is an integral part of land management and may focus on differences in soil types and soil characteristics to define specific interventions that are aimed to enhance the soil quality for the land use selected. Good soil structure improves water infiltration and decreases runoff and erosion. Well-structured soils are porous and allow water to enter easily, rather than running off to be lost to streams and rivers. Specific interventions also exist to enhance the carbon content in soils in order to mitigate climate change. Reversing the degradation of soil, water and biological resources and enhancing crop and livestock production through appropriate land use and management practices are essential components in achieving food and livelihood security.
Organic Farming focusses on the Livestock/Animal Farming. Animal Farming is described as "studying the biology of animals that are under the control of humankind." It can also be described as the production and management of farm animals. Historically, the degree was called animal husbandry and the animals studied were livestock species, like cattle, sheep, pigs, poultry, and horses. Today, courses available now look at a far broader area to include companion animals like dogs and cats, and many exotic species. Nowadays stress management is also a part of livestock farming as it finally improves product yield and quality. Pigs and poultry are reared intensively in indoor environments. However, indoor animal farming has often been criticized for multiple reasons - on grounds of pollution and for animal welfare reasons. Livestock farming plays a major role in the agricultural business and economy of major developing countries. They take an important part in crop agriculture. Most farms in the developing world are too small to avail tractor or other machinery facilities and their main alternative is animal power. The innumerable benefits of livestock farming can positively effect in a growth of agronomy, agro-economy, biological ecosystem, and other agricultural fields.
An agricultural waste management system (AWMS) is a planned system in which all necessary components are installed and managed to control and use by-products of agricultural production in a manner that sustains or enhances the quality of air, water, soil, plant, animal, and energy resources. The primary objective of most agricultural enterprises is the production of marketable goods. To be successful, the farm manager must balance the demand on limited resources among many complicated and interdependent systems, often including six basic functions: Production, Collection, Transfer, Storage, Treatment, Utilization.
Transgenic plants are plants that have been genetically engineered a breeding approach that uses recombinant DNA techniques to create plants with new characteristics. They are identified as a class of genetically modified organism (GMO). The aim is to introduce a new trait to the plant which does not occur naturally in the species. A transgenic plant contains a gene or genes that have been artificially inserted. This process provides advantages like improving shelf life, higher yield, improved quality, pest resistance, tolerant to heat, cold and drought resistance, against a variety of biotic and abiotic stresses. Cisgenic plants are made up of using genes, found within the same species or a closely related one, where conventional plant breeding can occur. Some breeders and scientists argue that cisgenic modification is useful for plants that are difficult to crossbreed by conventional methods
Agricultural business management is the use of business fundamentals to improve the agricultural industry and farm production. Agricultural business management, also called agribusiness management, applies business theories and practices to the agricultural industry to lower costs, boost profits and ensure that farm or food products are grown and distributed effectively. Agricultural business, also known as agribusiness, is the farming, management, production, and marketing of agricultural commodities, such as livestock and crops. The agricultural business field includes resource management, farming, conservation, and crop improvement.
Organic foods and beverages offer ample advantages over conventional foods such as health benefits, free of harmful chemicals, and others. The global market is poised to witness significant growth during the forecast period, owing to increase in income levels, rise in awareness regarding advantages of organic products, and advancements in organic farming techniques. The demand for organic food and beverages is anticipated to increase day by day by. Organically grown fruits and vegetables have high nutritive value and are free from pesticides and other chemicals. Furthermore, organic nondairy beverages are in high demand among consumers due to increase in health awareness among consumers.
Bringing ecological principles to bear in agroecosystems can suggest novel management approaches that would not otherwise be considered. The term is often used imprecisely and may refer to "a science, a movement, [or] a practice". Agroecologists study a variety of agroecosystems. The field of agroecology is not associated with any one method of farming, whether it be organic, integrated, or conventional, intensive, or extensive. However, it has much more in common with organic and integrated farming.
Integrated production or Integrated Farm Management is a whole farm management system which aims to deliver more sustainable agriculture. It is a dynamic approach which can be applied to any farming system around the world. It involves attention to detail and continuous improvement in all areas of a farming business through informed management processes. Integrated Farming.